Schedules of the Indian Constitution

Schedules of the Indian Constitution

  • Schedules are basically tables which contains additional details not mentioned in the articles. There are 12 Schedules in the Constitution of India. One of the first mentions of Schedules was made in the Government of India Act, 1935 where it included 10 Schedules.
  • Later, when the Indian Constitution was adopted in 1949, it consisted of 8 Schedules. The 9th schedule was added via First Amendment Act, while10th Schedulewas first added by 35th Amendment [Sikkim as Associate State]. Once Sikkim became a state of India, the 10 Schedule was repealed but later added once again by52th Amendment Act, 1985in context with the “Anti-defection” law.
  • After seven years, in 1992, two consecutive Constitutional Amendments Acts were passed i.e. 73rd and 74th, under which the 11th and 12th schedules were added to the Indian Constitution respectively.
  • Today, with the amendments in the Indian Constitution, there are a total of 12 Schedules.
  • The Schedules in the Indian Constitution fulfill the following purpose:
    • To reduce the legal complexity of the Constitution as schedules in the Indian Constitution are designed to be easily understood.
    • To be used as a reference when additional information or clarification is needed on a certain provision of the Consitution.
    • The purpose of the schedule is to make the Constitution easier to revise or update by amending specific sections rather than rewriting the entire article.
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List of Schedules of the Indian Constitution

SchedulesSubject Matter
First ScheduleIt contains the name of States and Union Territories.
Territorial Jurisdiction of states is also included
Second ScheduleThe provisions in relation to allowances, privileges, emoluments of:
President of India
Governors of Indian States
Speaker of Lok Sabha & Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha
Chairman of Rajya Sabha & Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha
Speaker and Deputy Speaker of Legislative Assemblies of Indian States
Chairman and Deputy Chairman of Legislative Councils of the Indian States
Supreme Court Judges
High Court Judges
Comptroller & Auditor General of India (CAG)
Third ScheduleIt contains the forms of oath and affirmation for:
Union Ministers of India
Parliament Election Candidates
Members of Parliament (MPs)
Supreme Court Judges
Comptroller and Auditor General
State Ministers
State Legislature Elections’ Candidates
State Legislature Members
High Court Judges
Fourth ScheduleIt contains the provisions in relation to the allocation of seats for States and Union Territories in the Rajya Sabha.
Fifth ScheduleIt contains provisions in relation to the administration and control of scheduled areas and scheduled tribes.
Sixth ScheduleIt contains provisions in relation to the administration of tribal areas in the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
Seventh ScheduleThis schedule deals with the three legislative lists:
Union List – List I (100 subjects)
State List – List II
(61 subjects)
Concurrent List – List III
(52 subjects)
Eighth ScheduleIt deals with the 22 official languages recognized by the Constitution of India:
Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri (Dongri), Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani
Mathili (Maithili), Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santhali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu
Ninth ScheduleIt deals with the state acts and regulations of that deal with land reforms and abolition of the zamindari system.
It also deals with the acts and regulations of the Parliament dealing with other matters.Note: 1st Amendment Act 1951 added the Ninth Schedule to protect the laws included in it from judicial scrutiny on the ground of violation of fundamental rights.
However, in 2007, the Supreme Court ruled that the laws included in this schedule after
April 24, 1973, are now open to judicial review
Tenth ScheduleIt contains provisions relating to disqualification of the members of Parliament and State Legislatures on the ground of defection.

Note: This schedule was added by the 52nd Amendment Act of 1985, also known as Anti-defection Law

Eleventh ScheduleIt contains the provisions that specify the powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats. It has 29 matters.

Note: This schedule was added by the 73rd Amendment Act of 1992.

Twelfth ScheduleIt deals with the provisions that specify the powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities. It has 18 matters.

Note: This schedule was added by the 74th Amendment Act of 1992.

Schedules of Indian Constitution & Articles

Schedules of Indian ConstitutionArticles of Indian Constitution
First ScheduleArticle 1 and Article 4
Second ScheduleArticles: 59(3), 65(3), 75(6), 97, 125, 148(3), 158(3), 164(5), 186 and 221
Third ScheduleArticles: 75(4), 99, 124(6), 148(2), 164(3), 188 and 219
Fourth ScheduleArticle: 4(1) and 80(2)
Fifth ScheduleArticle 244(1)
Sixth ScheduleArticle 244(2) and 275(1)
Seventh ScheduleArticle 246
Eighth ScheduleArticle 344(1) and 351
Ninth ScheduleArticle 31-B
Tenth ScheduleArticle 102(2) and 191(2)
Eleventh ScheduleArticle 243-G
Twelfth ScheduleArticle 243-W

Objectives of providing Schedule in the Indian Constitution

  • The objective of the schedule is tomake the act’s provisions less complicatedby separating the legal element from the additional information, making it more brief and easy to understand.
  • This division created by the timetable is also advantageous in the event of revisions. If there was no such separation,every time the additional information needed to be updated, an update to the article itself would be required, which is a time-consuming process.
  • The schedule is utilized not just in the Indian Constitution, but also in avariety of laws for diverse purposes. It is used to establish a list of states and union territories, as well as a list of other subject matters that fall under the jurisdiction of the state, the union, or both.
  • As a result, depending on the needs of the legislation, it can be utilized for a variety of reasons. Schedules can also be utilized when a certain section or article of legislation requiresadditional clarification or information not includedin the main text.

What is 9 Schedule of Indian Constitution?

TheNinth Scheduleof theIndian Constitutionis a crucial legal provision that shields certain laws from judicial review based on their potential inconsistency withfundamental rights.

  • Origin and Purpose:
    • The Ninth Schedule was introduced by theFirst Amendment Actin1951.
    • Its primary objective was to safeguardland reformand othersocioeconomic legislationfrom being invalidated by the judiciary.
    • TheSupreme Court’s decisionin theShankari Prasad case (1951)prompted the creation of the Ninth Schedule. The court ruled that laws enacted by Parliament could be challenged if they violated fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution.
  • Composition and Immunity:
    • The Ninth Schedule contains a list ofcentral and state lawsthat areimmunefrom legal challenges.
    • These laws are consideredconstitutionally protectedand cannot be struck down by the courts based on their conflict with fundamental rights.
    • The Ninth Schedule was brought into existence by addingArticle 31B, which aimed to protect laws related toagrarian reformand the abolition of theZamindari System.
  • Salient Features:
    • Article 31B: Provides protection to acts and regulations included in the Ninth Schedule from being challenged and invalidated on the grounds of contravention of fundamental rights.
    • Wider Scope: UnlikeArticle 31A, which protects only specific categories of laws, the Ninth Schedule covers a broader range of legislation.
    • Land and Reservation Laws: The laws primarily relate toagriculture,land issues, andreservation. For instance, there is a law fromTamil Naduin the schedule that mandates69% reservationin the state.
    • Promoting Equity: The Ninth Schedule contributes to reducing economic inequality and promoting social welfare through the protection of laws and policies.
    • Preventing Land Concentration: Another objective is to reduce the concentration of land in a few hands and ensure equitable distribution among farmers, aligning with the constitutional mandate of creating a just society.
  • Criticism and Controversy:
    • The Ninth Schedule has faced criticism for:
      • Violating Fundamental Rights: Some argue that it undermines the balance between fundamental rights and directive principles.
      • Lack of Judicial Oversight: The laws in this schedule are shielded from judicial scrutiny.
      • Selective Inclusion: The process of adding laws to the Ninth Schedule has been questioned.

What is 10 Schedule of Indian Constitution?

The 10th Schedule of the Indian Constitution (which talks about the anti-defection law) is designed to prevent political defections prompted by the lure of office or material benefits or other like considerations. The Anti-defection law was passed by Parliament in 1985 and reinforced in 2002.

  • The 10th Schedule of the Indian Constitution popularly referred to as the ‘Anti-Defection Law’ was inserted by the 52nd Amendment (1985) to the Constitution.
  • ‘Defection’ has been defined as, “To abandon a position or association, often to join an opposing group”.
  • The anti-defection law was enacted to ensure that a party member does not violate the mandate of the party and in case he does so, he will lose his membership of the House. The law applies to both Parliament and state assemblies.
  • The Anti-Defection Law aims to prevent MPs from switching political parties for any personal motive.

What are 11th and 12th schedules?

11th Schedulecontains the provisions that specify the powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats. This schedule was added by the 73rd Amendment Act of 1992. It has 29 matters.

  1. Agriculture, including agricultural extension.
  2. Land improvement, implementation of land reforms, land consolidation and soil conservation.
  3. Minor irrigation, water management and watershed development.
  4. Animal husbandry, dairying and poultry.
  5. Fisheries.
  6. Social forestry and farm forestry.
  7. Minor forest produces.
  8. Small scale industries, including food processing industries.
  9. Khadi, village and cottage industries.
  10. Rural housing.
  11. Drinking water.
  12. Fuel and fodder.
  13. Roads, culverts, bridges, ferries, waterways and other means of communication.
  14. Rural electrification, including distribution of electricity.
  15. Non-conventional energy sources.
  16. Poverty alleviation programme.
  17. Education, including primary and secondary schools.
  18. Technical training and vocational education.
  19. Adult and non-formal education.
  20. Libraries.
  21. Cultural activities
  22. Markets and fairs.
  23. Health and sanitation, including hospitals, primary health centres and dispensaries.
  24. Family welfare.
  25. Women and child development.
  26. Social welfare, including welfare of the handicapped and mentally retarded.
  27. Welfare of the weaker sections, and in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.
  28. Public distribution system.
  29. Maintenance of community assets.

12th Scheduleof the Indian Constitution deals with the provisions that specify the powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities. This schedule was added by the 74th Amendment Act of 1992. It has 18 matters.

  1. Urban planning including town planning.
  2. Regulation of land-use and construction of buildings.
  3. Planning for economic and social development.
  4. Roads and bridges.
  5. Water supply for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes.
  6. Public health, sanitation conservancy and solid waste management.
  7. Fire services.
  8. Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of ecological aspects.
  9. Safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of society, including the handicapped and mentally retarded.
  10. Slum improvement and upgradation.
  11. Urban poverty alleviation.
  12. Provision of urban amenities and facilities such as parks, gardens, playgrounds.
  13. Promotion of cultural, educational and aesthetic aspects.
  14. Burials and burial grounds; cremations, cremation grounds; and electric crematoriums.
  15. Cattle pounds; prevention of cruelty to animals.
  16. Vital statistics include registration of births and deaths.
  17. Public amenities including street lighting, parking lots, bus stops and public conveniences.
  18. Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries.
Local Government
Local Government
Q) How many schedules were there originally in the Indian Consitution?

Originally, there were eight schedules in the Indian Constitution. Later, four more schedules, i.e., the 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th Schedules were added through the 1st, 52nd, 73rd, and 74th Constitutional Amendments, respectively.Currently, there are 12 Schedules in the Constitution of India.

Q) Is a law placed under the 9th schedule immune from Judicial review?

No, the Supreme court in the I.R.Coelho case (2007), also known as the 9th schedule case, held that laws included under the Ninth Schedule cannot be completely immune from judicial review.

Q) How many schedules are there in Indian Constitution in 1950?

In theIndian Constitution, there were8 Scheduleswhen it was initially adopted in1949. However, with subsequent amendments, the number of schedules increased to 12.

Q) How many articles schedules and parts are there in the Indian Constitution?

The world’s lengthiest written constitution had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules at the time of commencement. Now the Constitution of India has more than 448 articles in 25 parts and 12 schedules.

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